Jesus | Facts, Teachings, Miracles, Death, & Doctrines

Jeaus : one of the most influential figures in human history

Jesus is one of the most influential figures in human history. He is the central figure of Christianity, the world’s largest religion, and is revered by Christians as the incarnation of God. He was a Jewish preacher and religious leader who lived in the first century CE in Roman-occupied Palestine. He taught about the kingdom of God, performed miracles, and gathered followers. He was arrested, tried, and crucified by the Roman authorities, but his followers believed that he rose from the dead and ascended to heaven. His life and teachings are recorded in the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, as well as other sources.

Jesus Christ

The following table summarizes some basic information about Jesus, based on the available historical and biblical evidence. Some of the information is uncertain or disputed by scholars, and some of it is not known.

FieldInformation
Full NameJesus of Nazareth, also called Jesus Christ
ProfessionPreacher and religious leader
Birthdayc. 6 to 4 BCE
Birth placeBethlehem, Judea
Birth signNot known
HeightNot known
WeightNot known
Agec. 33 to 38 years at death
Family membersMother: Mary; Father: Joseph (legal); Siblings: James, Joses, Judas, Simon, and unnamed sisters (according to Mark 6:3); Cousins: John the Baptist (according to Luke 1:36)
Net worthNot known
NationalityJewish
MoviesMany movies have been made about Jesus or featuring him as a character, such as The Passion of the Christ, The Last Temptation of Christ, Jesus Christ Superstar, The Greatest Story Ever Told, Ben-Hur, Son of God, Risen, etc.

Where was Jesus born?

According to the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, Jesus was born in Bethlehem, a small town in Judea, about six miles south of Jerusalem. Bethlehem was the ancestral home of King David, and the Gospels link Jesus’ birth to the prophecy that the Messiah would be a descendant of David (Micah 5:2; Matthew 2:1-6; Luke 2:4-7)

Jesus

However, the exact date and circumstances of Jesus’ birth are uncertain and disputed by scholars. Some suggest that Jesus was born around 6 to 4 BC, during the reign of King Herod the Great, who died in 4 BC. Others propose that Jesus was born later, around AD 6, during the census of Quirinius, the governor of Syria, who conducted a tax registration in Judea (Luke 2:1-3)

The Gospels also differ on some details of Jesus’ birth story. Matthew records that Jesus was born in a house and that he was visited by wise men from the east who followed a star and brought him gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh (Matthew 2:1-12). Luke narrates that Jesus was born in a manger because there was no room for his parents in the inn and that he was visited by shepherds who heard angels announcing his birth (Luke 2:8-20)

The Gospels do not mention the exact location of Jesus’ birthplace in Bethlehem, but later Christian tradition identified it with a cave or a stable near the Church of the Nativity, which was built by Emperor Constantine in the fourth century. The church is considered one of the oldest and holiest sites in Christianity and attracts millions of pilgrims every year.

How was Jesus’ early life?

The Gospels provide very little information about Jesus’ early life, except for his circumcision on the eighth day after his birth (Luke 2:21), his presentation at the temple in Jerusalem when he was 40 days old (Luke 2:22-38), and his visit to the temple when he was 12 years old (Luke 2:41-52)

Most scholars agree that Jesus grew up in Nazareth, a small town in Galilee, about 65 miles north of Jerusalem. Nazareth was a rural and obscure place, with a population of less than 500 people. It was not mentioned in the Hebrew Bible or any other ancient source until the first century AD.

Jesus’ parents were Mary and Joseph, who were betrothed but not yet married when Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit (Matthew 1:18-25; Luke 1:26-38). Joseph was a carpenter or a builder (Matthew 13:55; Mark 6:3), and Mary was a young virgin who became pregnant before they lived together. The Gospels affirm that Jesus was born without human father and that he was the Son of God (Matthew 1:23; Luke 1:35)

Jesus had several brothers and sisters, whose names are given as James, Joses, Judas, Simon, and unnamed sisters in Mark 6:3 and Matthew 13:55-56. Some Christians believe that these were not biological siblings of Jesus but rather his cousins or step-siblings from Joseph’s previous marriage. Others maintain that they were indeed the natural children of Mary and Joseph after Jesus’ birth. The Gospels do not specify their relationship to Jesus or their role in his ministry.

Jesus’ early life was probably typical of a Jewish boy in Galilee at that time. He learned to read and write Hebrew and Aramaic, the languages spoken by most Jews in Palestine. He also learned some Greek, which was widely used in trade and administration by the Romans who ruled the region. He studied the Torah, the Prophets, and the Psalms, which were the sacred scriptures of Judaism. He attended the synagogue, where he prayed and listened to the teachings of the rabbis. He observed the Sabbath and the Jewish festivals, such as Passover, Pentecost, and Tabernacles. He also experienced the hardships and oppressions of living under Roman occupation and taxation.

Where did Jesus receive his education?

The Gospels do not mention any formal education for Jesus, except for his visit to the temple in Jerusalem when he was 12 years old. There he amazed the teachers with his understanding and his questions (Luke 2:46-47). This episode suggests that Jesus had a natural curiosity and a keen interest in learning about God.

However, this does not mean that Jesus was uneducated or illiterate. On the contrary, he was well-versed in the Jewish scriptures and traditions, as he demonstrated in his debates with the Pharisees, the Sadducees, and the scribes. He often quoted from the Torah, the Prophets, and the Psalms, and he interpreted them in light of his own authority and mission. He also used parables, proverbs, and riddles to convey his message in a memorable and effective way. He was familiar with the popular beliefs and practices of his time, such as the apocalyptic expectations, the messianic hopes, and the purity laws. He also showed an awareness of the political and social realities of his day, such as the Roman rule, the Herodian dynasty, and the Jewish sects.

Jesus’ education was probably informal and practical, rather than academic and theoretical. He learned from his parents, his relatives, his neighbors, and his community. He learned from his own experience of God’s presence and guidance in his life. He learned from his observation of nature and human behavior. He learned from his interaction with people from different backgrounds and cultures, such as Samaritans, Gentiles, women, children, sinners, and outcasts. He learned from his prayer and meditation on God’s word. He learned from his discipleship to John the Baptist, who prepared the way for him. He learned from his own teaching and healing ministry, which revealed God’s kingdom to others.

What Jesus different?

Jesus is distinctive among all other religious leaders and historical figures for several reasons. First, he claimed to be the Son of God, who came from heaven to earth to reveal God’s love and will to humanity. He also claimed to be the Messiah, who fulfilled the prophecies and promises of the Hebrew Bible concerning God’s salvation for Israel and the world. He also claimed to be the Lord, who had authority over all things in heaven and on earth, including the law, the temple, the Sabbath, sin, sickness, death, and demons. He also claimed to be the way, the truth, and the life, who offered eternal life to those who believed in him and followed him.

Jesus Christ

Second, he performed many signs and wonders that attested to his divine identity and mission. He healed the sick, raised the dead, cast out demons, calmed storms, fed multitudes, walked on water, transfigured on a mountain, forgave sins, predicted the future, and more. He did these miracles not for his own glory or benefit but for God’s glory and for people’s benefit. He did these miracles not by his own power or magic but by God’s power and Spirit. He did these miracles not to impress or coerce people but to invite and persuade them to repent and believe in him.

Third, he taught with wisdom and authority that surpassed all other teachers of his time or any other time. He taught about God’s kingdom as a present reality that could be experienced by anyone who accepted his invitation. He taught about God’s love as a radical demand that required total commitment and obedience from his followers. He taught about God’s grace as a free gift that offered forgiveness and restoration to anyone who confessed their sins and trusted in him. He taught about God’s justice as a final judgment that awaited everyone who rejected him or oppressed others. He taught about God’s will as a perfect plan that involved suffering and sacrifice for himself and for his disciples.

Fourth, he lived a life of holiness and service that exemplified his teachings and character. He lived a life of purity and piety that obeyed God’s law without hypocrisy or legalism. He lived a life of humility and poverty that renounced worldly fame or wealth. He lived a life of love and compassion that embraced everyone without discrimination or favoritism. He lived a life of courage and faithfulness that confronted evil without fear or compromise. He lived a life of prayer and dependence that sought God’s guidance without presumption or doubt.

What are the miracles of Jesus?

Jesus is the most influential person in human history. His life, death, and resurrection have changed the course of history and the destiny of millions of people. He is the founder of Christianity, the world’s largest religion, and the source of hope and salvation for countless believers. Some of his achievements include:

  • He fulfilled over 300 prophecies from the Old Testament that predicted his birth, ministry, death, and resurrection. He proved that he was the Messiah, the anointed one sent by God to save his people.
  • He performed many miracles that demonstrated his divine power and compassion. He healed the sick, raised the dead, cast out demons, calmed storms, fed multitudes, walked on water, transfigured on a mountain, forgave sins, predicted the future, and more. He did these miracles not for his own glory or benefit but for God’s glory and for people’s benefit.
  • He taught with wisdom and authority that surpassed all other teachers of his time or any other time. He taught about God’s kingdom as a present reality that could be experienced by anyone who accepted his invitation. He taught about God’s love as a radical demand that required total commitment and obedience from his followers. He taught about God’s grace as a free gift that offered forgiveness and restoration to anyone who confessed their sins and trusted in him. He taught about God’s justice as a final judgment that awaited everyone who rejected him or oppressed others. He taught about God’s will as a perfect plan that involved suffering and sacrifice for himself and for his disciples.
  • He lived a life of holiness and service that exemplified his teachings and character. He lived a life of purity and piety that obeyed God’s law without hypocrisy or legalism. He lived a life of humility and poverty that renounced worldly fame or wealth. He lived a life of love and compassion that embraced everyone without discrimination or favoritism. He lived a life of courage and faithfulness that confronted evil without fear or compromise. He lived a life of prayer and dependence that sought God’s guidance without presumption or doubt.
  • He died a death of atonement and victory that accomplished God’s purpose for him and for humanity. He died a death of atonement that paid the price for human sin by bearing God’s wrath on the cross. He died a death of victory that defeated Satan’s power by breaking his hold on death through his resurrection. He died a death of love that demonstrated God’s love by giving himself up for us as a ransom for many.
  • He rose from the dead on the third day, proving that he was indeed the Son of God and the Lord of life. He appeared to his disciples and many others, giving them convincing proofs that he was alive. He commissioned them to be his witnesses to all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. He ascended to heaven, where he sits at the right hand of God, interceding for us and preparing a place for us.
  • He sent the Holy Spirit to empower his followers to continue his work on earth. He gave them gifts and abilities to serve him and others. He gave them guidance and comfort to face trials and temptations. He gave them joy and peace to overcome sorrow and fear. He gave them love and unity to reflect his image and glory.

These are some of the achievements of Jesus that show why he is worthy of our worship, trust, and obedience.

Did just marry?

There is no explicit answer to the question of Jesus’ marital status in the New Testament. It never mentions his wife, nor that he was unmarried. In fact, whenever the New Testament gospels refer to Jesus’ natural relatives, they speak only of his father, mother, and siblings, but never of a wife.

However, most Christian churches believe that Jesus remained single during his earthly life. They base this belief on several arguments:

  • The silence of the New Testament on Jesus’ marriage implies that he was not married, since it would have been unusual for a Jewish rabbi or teacher not to marry in his culture.
  • The nature of Jesus’ mission required him to be fully devoted to God and his kingdom, without being distracted by earthly ties or obligations .
  • The purpose of Jesus’ incarnation was to be the perfect sacrifice for human sin, which meant that he had to be sinless and holy in every aspect of his life .
  • The symbolism of Jesus’ relationship with his church, which is described as his bride or his body, suggests that he is spiritually married to his people, not physically married to a human woman .

However, some scholars and writers have speculated that Jesus was married, either to Mary Magdalene or to another woman. They base this speculation on several arguments:

  • The discovery of some ancient texts, such as the Gospel of Philip and the Gospel of Mary, that suggest a close or intimate relationship between Jesus and Mary Magdalene .
  • The possibility that Jesus followed the Jewish custom of marriage and procreation, which was considered a divine commandment and a blessing .
  • The reinterpretation of some biblical passages, such as the wedding at Cana and the crucifixion scene, that imply a hidden or secret marriage between Jesus and Mary Magdalene .

However, these arguments are not widely accepted by most Christian churches or scholars. They are based on dubious sources, questionable assumptions, and selective readings of the evidence. They also contradict the clear testimony of the canonical gospels and the early church tradition that affirm Jesus’ singleness and celibacy.

Therefore, the most reasonable and faithful answer to the question of Jesus’ marital status is that he was not married to anyone during his earthly life, but that he is spiritually married to his church, which is composed of all who believe in him and follow him.

Was Jesus socially active?

Jesus was socially active in the sense that he interacted with people from different backgrounds and cultures, and that he cared for the poor, the oppressed, and the marginalized. He was not socially passive or isolated, but rather engaged and involved in the world around him.

However, Jesus was not socially active in the sense that he conformed to the expectations or norms of his society, or that he pursued worldly fame or popularity. He was not socially driven or ambitious, but rather obedient and faithful to God’s will.

Some examples of how Jesus was socially active are:

  • He preached the good news of God’s kingdom to all who would listen, regardless of their status or reputation. He taught in synagogues, temples, homes, fields, hillsides, lakeshores, and streets. He spoke with authority and wisdom, challenging people to repent and believe in him .
  • He performed miracles that demonstrated God’s power and compassion. He healed the sick, raised the dead, cast out demons, calmed storms, fed multitudes, walked on water, transfigured on a mountain, forgave sins, predicted the future, and more . He did these miracles not for his own glory or benefit but for God’s glory and for people’s benefit.
  • He associated with people who were considered outcasts or sinners by his society. He befriended tax collectors, prostitutes, lepers, Samaritans, Gentiles, women, children, and others who were despised or discriminated by the religious leaders. He showed them love and grace, inviting them to join his community of disciples .
  • He confronted the injustice and hypocrisy of his society. He denounced the Pharisees and scribes who imposed heavy burdens on the people but did not practice what they preached. He cleansed the temple from the corruption and exploitation of the money changers and merchants. He defended the rights of the poor and the oppressed against the oppression of the rich and powerful .

These are some examples of how Jesus was socially active in a positive and constructive way. He was not a social activist who fought against the system or advocated for political change. He was not a social reformer who tried to improve the conditions or structures of his society. He was not a social revolutionary who led a violent uprising or overthrow of his government.

Rather, he was a social transformer who changed people’s hearts and lives by his words and deeds. He was a social redeemer who saved people from their sins and gave them eternal life by his death and resurrection. He was a social king who established his kingdom of righteousness and peace by his ascension and return.

What Jesus known as?

Jesus is not only the central figure of Christianity, but also a prominent character in many forms of art and entertainment. He has been portrayed by various actors, singers, writers, and artists in different roles and genres. Some of the famous roles played by Jesus are:

  • The Son of God: This is the most common and essential role of Jesus, as he is believed by Christians to be the divine incarnation of God who came to earth to save humanity from sin and death. He is also called the Messiah, the Christ, the Lord, the Savior, and the King of kings. This role is depicted in many movies, such as The Passion of the Christ, The Last Temptation of Christ, Jesus Christ Superstar, The Greatest Story Ever Told, Ben-Hur, Son of God, Risen, etc.
  • The Teacher: This role highlights the wisdom and authority of Jesus as he taught his disciples and the crowds about God’s kingdom, love, grace, justice, and will. He used parables, proverbs, and riddles to convey his message in a memorable and effective way. He also challenged the religious leaders and the political rulers with his questions and answers. This role is portrayed in many books, such as The Sermon on the Mount, The Parables of Jesus, The Questions of Jesus, etc.
  • The Miracle Worker: This role showcases the power and compassion of Jesus as he performed many signs and wonders that attested to his divine identity and mission. He healed the sick, raised the dead, cast out demons, calmed storms, fed multitudes, walked on water, transfigured on a mountain, forgave sins, predicted the future, and more. He did these miracles not for his own glory or benefit but for God’s glory and for people’s benefit. This role is illustrated in many paintings, such as The Healing of the Paralytic, The Raising of Lazarus, The Transfiguration, etc.
  • The Friend: This role emphasizes the humanity and intimacy of Jesus as he befriended people who were considered outcasts or sinners by his society. He ate with tax collectors, prostitutes, lepers, Samaritans, Gentiles, women, children, and others who were despised or discriminated by the religious leaders. He showed them love and grace, inviting them to join his community of disciples. He also shared his joys and sorrows with his closest friends, such as Peter, James, John, Mary Magdalene, Martha, and Lazarus. This role is expressed in many songs, such as What a Friend We Have in Jesus, I Have Decided to Follow Jesus, Amazing Grace, etc.
  • The Sufferer: This role reveals the passion and sacrifice of Jesus as he endured betrayal, arrest, trial.

FAQ:

Jesus Christ

Who is Jesus?

Jesus is the central figure of Christianity, the world’s largest religion. He is revered by Christians as the Son of God, who came to earth to reveal God’s love and will to humanity. He is also called the Messiah, the Christ, the Lord, the Savior, and the King of kings. He was a Jewish preacher and religious leader who lived in the first century CE in Roman-occupied Palestine. He taught about the kingdom of God, performed miracles, and gathered followers. He was arrested, tried, and crucified by the Roman authorities, but his followers believed that he rose from the dead and ascended to heaven. His life and teachings are recorded in the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, as well as other sources.

What are the main beliefs of Christianity about Jesus?

The main beliefs of Christianity about Jesus are summarized in the Nicene Creed, which is a statement of faith that was adopted by the early church in the fourth century. The Nicene Creed affirms that:

Jesus is the only-begotten Son of God, who is eternally begotten of the Father, and who is of one substance with the Father.

  • Jesus was incarnate by the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary, and became truly human.
  • Jesus suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died, and was buried. He descended into hell and on the third day he rose again from the dead.
  • Jesus ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead, and his kingdom will have no end.
  • Jesus is one with the Father and the Holy Spirit in the Holy Trinity, which is one God in three persons.

What are the main sources of information about Jesus?

The main sources of information about Jesus are:

  • The New Testament: This is a collection of 27 books that were written by or attributed to his apostles and their associates in the first and second centuries CE. The New Testament includes four Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John), which narrate his life, death, and resurrection; one historical book (Acts), which describes his ascension and the spread of his church; 21 letters (Epistles), which address various issues and doctrines related to his followers; and one apocalyptic book (Revelation), which foretells his return and the end of times.
  • The Old Testament: This is a collection of 39 books that were written by or attributed to various prophets and leaders of Israel in various periods from c. 1500 BCE to c. 400 BCE. The Old Testament includes five books of law (Torah), which contain God’s commandments and covenant with his people; 12 books of history (Joshua to Esther), which record God’s dealings with his people from their exodus from Egypt to their exile in Babylon; five books of poetry (Job to Song of Songs), which express various emotions and experiences related to God; five books of wisdom (Proverbs to Ecclesiastes), which offer practical advice and insights for living; 17 books of prophecy (Isaiah to Malachi), which announce God’s judgment and salvation for his people and the nations. The Old Testament contains many prophecies and promises that Christians believe were fulfilled by Jesus as the Messiah.
  • The Apocrypha: This is a collection of 14 books that were written by or attributed to various Jewish authors in various periods from c. 300 BCE to c. 100 CE. The Apocrypha includes historical books (1-2 Maccabees).

Written by Vikram

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